year / Lunar year
May God forgive me and guide me regarding any sign that would have been misinterpreted in this study and elsewhere. May He always guide us to a better understanding of His profound scripture so we can purify ourselves and increase our knowledge.
On the contrary we are going to prove that both words respectively mean “Solar Year” and “Lunar Year” in the Quran.
Furthermore, we are going to witness that there is a profound - very easy to understand -mathematical miracle hidden behind the relationship between the two words.
“Sanat” (سنة) derives from the root “sanaa” (سنا), which means “to blaze”, “to brighten”, “to flash”. In 24:43 we find the same root word and have the example of the lightning which “brightens” so much that it takes away the eyesight. Therefore, the word “sanat” (sanat = سنة, GV 115, feminine word) carries the idea of intense light, like the “sun” (شمس, the word is feminine in Arabic too). For this very reason, it consistently refers to or symbolizes a Solar year in the Quran. We are going to provide decisive proofs for that.
The simple form “Sanat” (year) occurs 7 times in 2:96; 5:26, 22:47, 29:14, 32:5, 46:15 and 70:4.
A very similar root that is linked to “sanaa” (سنا) is saniha (سنه), which means “to advance in age”. Every time the Quran expresses the age of a human being or how many years a human being lived, it is consistently expressed in “Solar years” (Sanat), which is consistent with the way human beings around the globe almost always count their age to stay in phase with the recurrence of new seasons.
(2:96) In fact, you will find them the most covetous of life; even more so than the idol worshipers. The one of them wishes to live a thousand [solar] years (Sanat). But this will not spare him any retribution, no matter how long he lives. GOD is seer of everything they do.
(46:15)…until the time he reaches his maturity and the age of forty year(s) (Sanat)…
“’Aam” (عام, GV 111, masculine word) derives from the root “’Aama”, which means “to enter in a contract for one (lunar) year”. The simple form occurs 7 times in verses 2:259; 9:37; 9:126; 12:49 and 29:14.
Since “Sanat” is the symbol of a Solar year, we can easily expect that ‘Aam is the symbol of a lunar year in the Quran.
Remark: The word “Moon” (قمر) is also masculine in Arabic.
One obvious example that “’Aam” means “Lunar year” is verse 9:37; first let’s read 2:189 and 2:197 to understand the context:
(2:189) They ask you about the lunar crescents (i.e. complete cycle of moon phases from the new moon until the end of a lunar month); Say: They are timing devices for the people and for Hajj…
(2:197) Hajj takes place during the well known months (الحج اشهر معلومت = “months” is a regular plural = three or more months by definition in Arabic), so whoever undertakes Hajj therein…
(9:37) The postponement [of the Sacred months] is a sign of excessive disbelief; it augments the straying of those who have disbelieved. They make it lawful one Lunar year (عاما = ‘Aam), and make it unlawful the [next] Lunar year (عاما = ‘Aam), to adjust the number which God has made unlawful, and making lawful what God has made unlawful. Their evil works are adorned in their eyes. GOD does not guide the disbelieving people.
The polytheists in Arabia used to carry over a sacred month to another from time to time to adjust the lunar calendar to the solar calendar. The practice of “intercalation” is made unlawful in the verse. The use of “’Aam” in 9:37 unquestionably means “Lunar year” since the sacred months are based on a perfect lunar calendar without any intercalation.
Based on this observation, we for instance learn from the perfect Quran in 12:49 that a lunar calendar was in place in Egypt at the time of Joseph:
(12:49) "Then will come after that a lunar year (‘Aam) in which will be given abundant rain for the people, and they will once again press juice."
In 29:14 the age of Noah is expressed both in solar and lunar years, as he is said to have lived one thousand solar years (sanat), less fifty lunar years (“Aam). Two different words have been used because they are not synonyms and because Noah’s age could only accurately be expressed as “one thousand Solar years (sanat), less fifty Lunar years (“Aam)”.
Now that we proved with the straightforward Quran the difference between “Sanat” (Solar year) and ‘Aam” (Lunar year), let us study the meaning of 18:25:
Verse 18:25: Quranic symbol of the relationship between a Solar and a Lunar year
(18:25) And they (the seven companions of the cave) remained in their cave for three hundred solar years (سنين = sineen), and they add nine.
(18:26) Say: “God knows best how long they [exactly] stayed (i.e. in addition to 309 years); to Him belongs the hidden aspect of the heavens and the Earth;…
The beginning of sura 18 tells the story of one of the greatest miracle in the history of mankind: In the early second century, seven young Christians known in the Quran as the “companions of the cave” fell asleep for 309 years by God’s grace to escape persecution from trinitarian Christians who wanted to force them to reject the absolute Oneness of God and corrupt their faith with the doctrine of trinity, a pagan belief.
(For more details, read the article: “Secret of the seven sleepers” on this website, which explains important secrets of the Quran).
Verse 25 is written in a very peculiar way since it separates “300 solar years” (300 “sineen” = plural of “Sanat” = Solar years), to which “nine” have to be added; God does not precise directly if we are dealing with nine solar or lunar years.
When the companions hid in the cave fearing for their lives because they desperately wanted to preserve the purity of their faith in the one true God, the calendar which was used was solar (the Julian calendar). When they woke up 300 solar years later, a lunisolar calendar was in place in the Byzantine Empire because people used to combine a solar and a lunar calendar to calculate the date for Easter, the most important date at the time in Christianity. This is why 300 Solar years + “nine” means that “nine” lunar years are needed in addition to number 300 to establish the correspondence between the solar and lunar calendar:
It is a hidden allegory that 300 Solar years = 309 Lunar years, and that the ratio (or proportion) between a solar and a lunar year is:
Please note that it is very surprising that the division of 309 by 300 is precisely 1.03 - only a two decimal place number - instead of multiple or infinite decimal places; for instance dividing 365 days (average solar year) by 354 days (average lunar year) is 1.031073446327684, and the overwhelming number of divisions would look the same. People who study what we call "the statiscal miracle of 1.03" will realize that the exact ratio of 1.03 serves as a mathematical symbol in the Quran that serves as the departing point to multiple statistically very significant relationships in the 1.03 range, as we will see in this article, as well as in other articles on this website, especially in an article to be published in the future, God willing.
Some very insincere people who deny the mathematical miracle of the Quran reject the allegory that 300 solar years = 309 Lunar years saying that 1.03 is not the exact ratio between a Solar year and a lunar year.
300 solar years x 365.2425 days = 109572.75 days
309 lunat years x 354.36708 days = 109499.42772 days
Therefore it is a fact that there is a difference of about 73.32 days between 300 Solar years and 309 Lunar years. Now is the time to read the exact context of 18:25:
By the Grace of God, the Quran exposes such insincere people who reject the truth because if God says clearly in verse 18:25 that they stayed a total of “300 solar years and they add nine”, He stated in the very next verse that “God knows best how long they [exactly] stayed”. In other words, God obviously said the absolute truth when He established that they stayed 309 years, but He also said the truth when He says that “He (alone) knows how long they stayed”, meaning clearly that they stayed a little bit more days than exactly 309 years.
300 Solar years = 309 Lunar years is a therefore a perfect correspondence between Solar and Lunar years expressed in years. And God lets us know that it is only but a close approximation if we take into account the exact number of days.
We have explained the mathematical miracle hidden in 18:25 establishing the relation between 300 Solar years and 309 Lunar years and the allegory of the ratio of 1.03; we also proved with Quranic verses the difference between “Sanat” (Solar year) and ‘Aam” (Lunar year); let us now prove it mathematically with their gematrical values:
Solar year (Sanat) and Lunar year (‘Aam): Mathematical confirmation
Simply by studying the relationship between gematrical values of “Sanat” (Solar year, GV 115, symbolizing 365 days) and ‘Aam (Lunar year, GV 111, meaning 354 days), we witness the following profound fact:
GV Sanat (115) / GV 'Aam (111)
Just like it is the case in 18:25 and a number of other places in the Quran, we see that the symbol of 1.03 is encoded in 1.03603... to reflect a close average of the relationship between a Solar (Sanat) and a lunar year (“Aam) !!!
The fact that gematrical values of “Sanat” (GV 115) and “’Aam” (111) are so amazingly close and divinely calculated to allow and reflect the symbol of 1.03 is a great statistical wonder and miracle of the Quran:
Gematrical values of Arabic words can be as different as 11 (GV “Hajj”), 66 (GV “God”), 115 (GV “Sanat”), 352 (GV “Quran”), 400 (GV “Sun”), 1091 (GV “Ramadan”) etc… and gematrical values of individual letters vary from 1 (letter ا) to 1000 (letter غ). We can safely say that there is less than 1 chance in thousands that two meaningful words like sanat (Solar year) and ‘Aam (Lunar year) would reflect a ratio within the 1.03 range.
115/111 = 1.03603… = GV Sanat/GV ‘Aam
Let’s study what a slight variation by only 1 does compared to the above ratio:
116/111 = 1.0450…
114/111 = 1.0270…
115/110 = 1.0454…
115/112 = 1.0267…
This gives us a little idea of how incredible it is that 115 and 111 reflect the symbol of 1.03. None of the four above ratios stays within the 1.03 range if we vary one of the numbers just by 1. The only ratio that is in the 1.03 range is the one based on the actual gematrical values of “Sanat” (Solar year) and “”Aam” (Lunar year).
Let us divide a few random gematrical values by either “Sanat” or “’Aam”:
1091/115 = 9.4869…
400/115 = 3.4782…
352/111 = 3.1711…
11/111 = 0.0990…
The least we can say is that getting a ratio within the 1.03 range dividing random gematrical values is a tremendous statistical challenge.
What we have here is no less than a massive mathematical confirmation based on the allegory of 1.03 (encoded in 18:25) of the respective meanings of “Sanat” (Solar year) and “’Aam” (Lunar year) which we initially explained showing very simple and straightforward examples of the way they are used in the Quran.
The ratio between 115 (Sanat) and 111 (‘Aam), just like in 18:25 is also a very close approximation. The reason why it is only “very close” to the scientifically perfect ratio between a Solar year and a Lunar year (which is 365.2425 days /354.36708 days = 1.03068… instead of 115/111 = 1.03603…) is that the ratio between Sanat (115) and ‘Aam (111) is based on whole numbers which reflect the symbol of 309/300 = 1.03, as encoded in 18:25. God makes His proofs overwhelming for the sincere, but it is very important for insincere people to express their disbelief as most of them will say that they would only accept a ratio that it scientifically perfect, completely ignoring common sense.
Such people typically refuse to see that there are tiny variations regarding the length of a solar or lunar year throughout history. God knows exactly what the solar/lunar ratio was 14 centuries ago when the Quran was revealed, and He designed His Quran with close averages to reflect the fact that such a ratio is stable historically (allegory of 1.03 ), despite the fact that there are slight adjustments between the time the Quran was revealed and the time the world will end.
If insincere people were to join the ranks of the believers, it would be chaos in Islam and on Earth. It is a true gift from God that many proofs of the Quran, even though overwhelming, are presented in a way that bars insincere people from becoming Muslims.
Ratio between the 7 words “Solar Year” and the 7 words “Lunar year”
numerous profoundly meaningful mathematical symmetries between words in the
Quran, and it is clearly God’s design that the singular of the simple form
“solar year” (Sanat) and “Lunar Year” (‘Aam) both occur seven times.
7 times "solar year":
Remark: Let us point out here that the singular of sanat occurs 7 times and its plural occurs 12 times (7:130; 10:5; 12:42; 12:47; 17:12; 18:11; 18:25; 20:40; 23:112; 26:18; 26:205; 30:4):
7 + 12 = 19; it is noteworthy that the sun, the moon and the earth realign in the same relative position every 19 years to the day, which equals precisely every 235 lunar months. This is called the Metonic cycle. The words “sun” and “moon” intersect 19 times (symbolizing this divine alignment) in 18 verses in the Quran. Once out of 19 occurences (in verse 29:14), the words “Sun”, “Moon” and “earth” are mentioned in perfect succession or perfectly “aligned”.
Seven times “Lunar year”:
We notice that there are 7 verses where the word “solar year” (سنة) occurs, and only 5 verses where we find the word “Lunar Year” (عام).
Both words “solar year” and “lunar year” intersect in the same verse in 29:14.
Let us simply divide all gematrical values of the 7 verses where “Solar Year” occur by the 5 “Lunar year” verses:
It is extremely difficult to obtain randomly a figure within the 1.03 range as gematrical values of verses are far too diverse to be proportional, and we divided the gematrical values of 7 verses by 5 verses (7/5 = 1.4). It is up to each and everyone to determine if such a result is a coincidence or a divine design. Again this is here a test of sincerity.
- Sanat (سنة, GV 115) = Solar year.
- ‘Aam (عام, GV 111) = Lunar year.
- The length of a solar year and a lunar year is rather stable in a few centuries or millenniums: Only extremely tiny variations occur. Because there is a tiny variation, only an average ratio can symbolize mathematically the relationship between a solar year and a lunar year. This is why the Quran coded mathematically the Solar/Lunar year ratio through a symbolical average of 1.03, coded primarily in 18:25 and expressed in years:
- 309 lunars years/300 solar years = 1.03 (exact ratio of 1.03).
- For the same reason, the simple singular form of the word “day” occurs 365 times in the Quran, another highly symbolical average for a solar year.
GV “Solar year” (سنة, GV 115) / GV “Lunar year” (عام, GV 111) = 1.03603…
- “Solar year” occurs 7 times in the Quran in 7 verses which have a total gematrical value of 41136; “Lunar year” occurs 7 times in the Quran in 5 verses which have a total gematrical value of 39603:
41136/39603 = 1.03870918869…
All forms of the word "sanat" (solar year) occur 19 times, which is the exact length to the day of the Metonic cycle, where the sun, the moon and the earth realign in the same relative position. 19 years are equal to 235 lunar months with a difference of only about 2.5 hours.
These easy to
understand mathematical wonders are among an infinite number of signs in the
Quran which prove that the Quran is coded mathematically far beyond any human
capability; it proves that Arabic gematrical values are not human made as some people
who reject the truth have claimed, but part of God’s divine design encoding the
Holy book of Islam.