The four sacred months of Hajj
A simple lecture of Quranic verses that deal with the time of hajj shows that traditional Islam has lost knowledge that there are four continuous sacred months during which the Hajj can be performed. Ignoring the message of the Quran and reducing the hajj to 5 days has caused thousands of deaths throughout history, like the deadly stampede in 2015 which killed over 700 people in one day. In other words, traditional Islam does not know what the four correct sacred months are. Clear and simple Quranic proofs are presented in this article, and I challenge anyone to refute the arguments in the light of the Quran.
1. The Sacred months of Hajj: When does the pilgrimage take place?
Contrary to the teachings of corrupted traditional Islam which restricts the Hajj to a few days during the month of Dhul Hijah, and defines the Islamic sacred months as the 11th, 12th, 1st and 7th months (Dhul-Qi’dah, Dhul-Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab), a careful study of the Quran proves that the sacred months of Hajj are the last four consecutive months of the lunar year.
1. How many months are sacred?
1.1 The well known months
الحج اشهر معلومت فمن فرض فيهن الحج فلا رفث ولا فسوق ولا جدال فى الحج وما تفعلوا من خير يعلمه الله وتزودوا فان خير الزاد التقوى واتقون ياولى الالبب
(2:197) The Hajj shall be observed during the well known months. Therefore, anyone who performs the Hajj during that time shall abstain from any intimate relationship, misconduct and quarrelling during the Hajj. And God knows full well any good that you do. And stock up on supplies, but, in reality, the most important thing that you need is righteousness. And fear Me, O you who possess intelligence!
Verse 2:197 specifies that the Hajj shall be performed during the “well known months”. The plural “months” (اشهر) in the verse implies 3 or more months by definition in Arabic. This proves right away that traditional Islam has perverted the ritual of Hajj, since the book of God states that it can be performed during 3 or more months of the year.
1.2 9:36: Four months are sacred
ان عدة الشهور عند الله اثنا عشر شهرا فى كتب الله يوم خلق السموت والارض منها اربعة حرم ذلك الدين القيم فلا تظلموا فيهن انفسكم وقتلوا المشركين كافة كما يقتلونكم كافة واعلموا ان الله مع المتقين
(9:36) Indeed, the number of months decreed by God is twelve months, in accordance with the book of God [since] the day He created the heavens and the earth; among them, four are sacred. This is the correct religion. So do not wrong your souls regarding this matter, and fight the idol worshipers in unison, in the same manner as they fight you in unison. And keep in mind that God is on the side of the righteous.
Verse 9:36 tells us that God decreed a twelve month
system, four or which are sacred. It also suggests that it has been the case
since the day God created the heavens and the earth, millions of years before
Muhammad and Abraham.
Remark: The Quran is coded mathematically, and the expression "al ashhar al haram" (the sacred month) occurs four times in the Quranic text in 2:194 (2), 2:217 (1) and 5:2 (1).
1.3 Fighting is prohibited during the four sacred months of Hajj
فسيحوا فى الارض اربعة اشهر واعلموا انكم غير معجزى الله وان الله مخزى الكفرين
(2:217) They ask you about fighting during the [four] sacred months. Proclaim: “Fighting therein is a great [sin]; repelling from the path of God, disbelieving in Him and in the Sacred Mosque, and expelling its people from it is [even] worse in the sight of God; Oppression is worse than murder; they will not stop fighting you until they revert you from your religion, if they have the opportunity to do so. And whoever among you reverts from his religion, then dies in a state of denial, are those who will have nullified their deeds in this world, as well as in the hereafter. They are the ones who will be the companions of the fire, in which they will abide permanently.
The above verse states that it is forbidden to fight during the sacred months of Hajj, which is very important to understand what follows:
1.4 Sura 9:2: A four month truce was decreed with the polytheists because fighting is prohibited during the four months of Hajj
(9:2) Therefore, roam through the land [freely] for four months, and know that you cannot escape from GOD, and that GOD humiliates the disbelievers.
The believers were at war with the polytheists during most of the prophet’s ministry, and because it is forbidden to fight during the four sacred months of Hajj, God decreed a four month truce between them. Furthermore, 9:2 shows very clearly that the four Sacred months of Hajj are consecutive: “Therefore, roam through the land for four months,…”.
فاذا انسلخ الاشهر الحرم فاقتلوا المشركين حيث وجدتموهم وخذوهم واحصروهم واقعدوا لهم كل مرصد فان تابوا واقاموا الصلوة وءاتوا الزكوة فخلوا سبيلهم ان الله غفور رحيم
(9:5) So once the [four consecutive] sacred months are over, then kill the idol worshipers wherever you may encounter them, seize them, besiege them, and wait for them everywhere you can ambush them. But if they repent, observe the ritual prayer and pay the zakât, then do not stand in their way; Indeed, God is Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful.
9:5 confirms that the four month truce that was mentioned in 9:2 are not just any months, but no other than the four sacred months of Hajj. Moreover, the expression “Once the [four] sacred months [of Hajj] are over” (during which the four month truce was decreed) reinforces the fact that the four months of Hajj are indeed consecutive.
Disingenuous people may try to claim here that nothing establishes a link between the sacred months and the Hajj in sura 9. But have they even read verse 9:3?
(9:2) Therefore, roam through the land [freely] for four months, and know that you cannot escape from GOD, and that GOD humiliates the disbelievers. (9:3) And [this is] a proclamation from God and his messenger to the people, on the day of the greater pilgrimage (Yawma-lhajji al akbar), that God is no longer bound with the idol worshipers,… (9:5) So once the [four consecutive] sacred months are over, …
There is no way to escape the fact that the four sacred months and the Hajj are indeed clearly related here directly in sura 9, which was already the case anyway in sura 2 (2:197). We will explain the exact meaning of the day of the greater pilgrimage in section 2.
1.5 Verse 9:28: The key to pinpoint which months are the four sacred months of Hajj:
يايها الذين ءامنوا انما المشركون نجس فلا يقربوا المسجد الحرام بعد عامهم هذا وان خفتم عيلة فسوف يغنيكم الله من فضله ان شاء ان الله عليم حكيم
(9:28) O you who believe, the idol worshipers are impure, so do not let them approach the sacred Mosque after their [final] lunar year herein witnessed; and if you fear poverty, then God will enrich you with His bounty, if He so desires. Indeed, God is Omniscient, Most Wise.
The polytheists could move freely through the land during the four consecutive month truce (9:2), included to Mecca to perform the Hajj, since 9:28 shows that the disbelievers were not allowed “to approach the Sacred Mosque (of Mecca) “after their [final] lunar year herein witnessed”. The word “’Aam” in 9:28 always means “Lunar year” in Quranic Arabic, as proven in the article “Solar year/lunar year” on this website, which is no surprise since the time of Hajj is indexed to a pure lunar calendar (without intercalation). Furthermore, the demonstrative pronoun “Hadha” (هذا = “this”, or “herein witnessed” in the context of the verse) in the expression “after their [final] lunar year herein witnessed” (بعد عامهم هذا) proves that the polytheists were not allowed to perform the Hajj nor to go to the Sacred Mosque any longer after the end of that particular lunar year: This implies that the four month truce ended with the last day of the last month of the lunar calendar, that is to say with the end of Dhul-Hijjah (the 12th month), which we saw is also the fourth and last month of Hajj.
(9:28) O you who believe, the idol worshipers are impure, so do not let them approach the Sacred Mosque after their [final] lunar year herein witnessed; and if you fear poverty, then God will enrich you with His bounty, if he so desires. Indeed, God is Omniscient, Most Wise.
This is Quranic evidence that the four months of Hajj start with the Holy month of Ramadan and are the 9th, 10th 11th 12th months of the lunar calendar, that is to say Ramadan, Shawwal, Dhul-Qi’dah and Dhul-Hijjah.
1.6 The hadith deviance
Hadith al-Bukhari, 2958:
Abu Bakarah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: "The year is twelve months of which four are sacred, the three consecutive months of Dhul-Qa'dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram (11th, 12th, 1st months), and Rajab Mudar (the 7th month) which comes between Jumadah and Sha'ban."
The above hadith contradicts the Quran in two ways:
- It states that the four months of Hajj are not consecutive (!) when the Quran proves decisively that a truce of four consecutive months had been decreed (9:2) on the very day of the greater pilgrimage (9:3, precise definition in 5.2) to avoid fighting during the four sacred months of Hajj (9:5).
- It states that they are the 11th, 12th, 1st and 7th months (Dhul-Qi’dah, Dhul-Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab) of the lunar calendar, when the Quran decrees in 9:28 that they are the last four of the lunar year (9th, 10th 11th 12th), thus ending with Dhul-Hijjah. Additional evidence in this regard is available in the article entitled “the four sacred months of Hajj”.
We have here a perfect example that because Sunni and Shia religious leaders and their followers originally allowed themselves to believe in hadiths other than God and His revelations (45:6), Sunni and Shia beliefs often contradict and as a result supersede the message of the Quran, which the Quran says is idol worship (6:19), the most grievous sin in Islam.
The corruption is so deep that the names of the first two months of the lunar year in Sunni and Shia Islam were changed from what they originally were and are currently called “Muharram” (which means “Forbidden”) - to make people believe that it is one of the four “Forbidden” sacred months during which Muslims can’t fight – and Safar.
1.7 The names of the 12 lunar months
According to Muhammad Shaykh, Muharram, currently known as the First month of the Islamic calendar, is a corruption and was initially called Safar 1. The second month was called Safar 2 and is now called Safar instead. In any case, it is obvious that the first month of the lunar calendar cannot possibly be called “Muharram” (Sacred), as there are only four sacred months in the lunar year, and they are proven to be the last four of the lunar year in the Quran.
The names of the 12 lunar months in Islam:
1 Safar al-Awwal صفر الأوّل
2 Safar al-Thānī صفر الثاني
3 Rabīʿ al-Awwal ربيع الأوّل
4 Rabīʿ al-Thānī ربيع الثاني
5 Jumādā al-Ūlā جمادى الأولى
6 Jumādā al-Thāniya جمادى الثانية
7 Rajab رجب
8 Shaʿbān شعبان
9 Ramaḍān رمضان
10 Shawwāl شوّال
11 Dhū al-Qaʿda ذو القعدة
12 Dhū al-Ḥijja ذو الحجّة
Just as a matter of reference, the gematrical value of the four sacred months (last months of the lunar year) is 1091 + 337 + 916 + 753 = 3097 = 19 x 163. This is an interesting result because the sign of 19 is, in my view, associated with the concept of time, as explained in the article on the “miracle of 19”.
2. What is “the day of the greater pilgrimage” (Yawma-lhajji al akbar) in 9:3?
واذن من الله ورسوله الى الناس يوم الحج الاكبر ان الله برىء من المشركين ورسوله فان تبتم فهو خير لكم وان توليتم فاعلموا انكم غير معجزى الله وبشر الذين كفروا بعذاب اليم
(9:3) And [this is] a proclamation from God and his messenger to the people, on the day of the greater pilgrimage, that God is no longer bound with the idol worshipers, and [neither is] his messenger. Therefore, if you repent, it will be better for you; but if you turn away, then know that you cannot escape from God; and warn those who disbelieve of a painful retribution.
Muhammad Asad wrote the following commentary concerning “the day of the greater pilgrimage”:
“There is no unanimity among the commentators as to what is meant by "the day of the Greatest Pilgrimage". Most of them assume that it refers to the pilgrimage in the year 9H., in which the Prophet himself did not participate, having entrusted Abu Bakr with the office of amir al-hajj. This very fact, however, makes it improbable that the designation "the Greatest Pilgrimage" should have been given in the Qur'an to this particular pilgrimage. On the other hand, there exists a Tradition on the authority of `Abd Allah ibn `Umar to the effect that the Prophet described in these very words the last pilgrimage led by himself in 10 H. and known to history as the Farewell Pilgrimage (Zamakhshari, Razi); one may, therefore, assume that it is this which is alluded to here. If this assumption is correct, it would justify the conclusion that verses 3 and 4 of this surah were revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage, i.e., shortly before the Prophet's death. This might explain the-otherwise perplexing-statement, reliably attributed to the Prophet's Companion Al-Bara' (Bukhari, Kitab at-Tafsir), that At-Tawbah was the last surah revealed to the Prophet: for, although it is established beyond any doubt that the surah as a whole was revealed in 9 H. and was followed by several other parts of the Qur'an, e.g., Al-Ma'idah, it is possible that what Al-Bard' had in mind were only these two key-verses (3 and 4) of At-Tawbah, which conceivably were revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage.”
The above commentary illustrates the fact that traditional Sunni commentators are not only divided on the issue, but cannot possibly understand the meaning of “the day of the greater pilgrimage” because unreliable traditions other than God and His revelations (45:6, 77:50) keep them from comprehending what the Quran really says.
If we rely exclusively on the Quran, such divisions vanish, as the Quran is the book for which there is no doubt (2:1):
Sura 9 paves the way, right after the decisive battle of Hunayn (9:25-26) (which took place shortly before the sura), for the final victory of Muslims and final eviction of the polytheists from Mecca once the four month truce and ultimatum expires (9:28). The sura was revealed in the 9th year after Hegira (630 CE) if mainstream historical accounts are correct.
Therefore, “The day of the greater pilgrimage” (يوم الحج الاكبر = Yawma-lhajji al akbar) is simply and logically the very first day from which a four month truce had been decreed by God, corresponding to the first day of the four sacred months of Hajj. Sura 9 was thus revealed on the first day of Ramadan, 9AH (December 12th 630). More broadly, the day of the greater pilgrimage is therefore the day that opens the Hajj season every year.
The expression “day of the greater pilgrimage”, due to the comparative form “al akbar” (الاكبر), also separates the first eight lunar months of the year where only the ‘Umrah can be performed, from the Hajj season, which is the time for “the greater pilgrimage” by comparison: This is why it is correct to say that the ‘Umrah is “the lesser” or “small pilgrimage” in comparison with the Hajj which is “the greater pilgrimage”. Another way to say it is that since the Quran is fully detailed, it does not allow any pilgrimage other than the ‘Umrah and the Hajj, therefore the ‘Umrah can be called the “lesser” or “small” pilgrimage in comparison with the Hajj.
3. Why is the month of Ramadan cited among verses describing the Hajj in sura 2
To further prove our point regarding the Hajj starting with the holy month of Ramadan, let us cite a few relevant verses close to the only verse in the Quran which mentions a month by name, i.e. the month of Ramadan:
(2:158) Indeed, [the knolls of] Al Safa and Al Marwah are among the rites inspired by God. Therefore, whoever performs the Hajj to the [Sacred] House, or performs ‘Umrah, there is no blame upon him to go around the two of them. And whoever volunteers for more, then God is indeed Appreciative, Omniscient. (2:184) A definite number of days [are designated for fasting]: Therefore, whoever among you is sick or on a journey will make up for the missing days at a later date; those who experience great difficulty [fasting] can substitute a ransom feeding the poor; whoever volunteers more, it is better for him; [but] fasting is better for you, if only you knew. (2:185) The month of Ramadan is the one during which the Quran was revealed as a guidance for mankind, [providing] proofs corroborating that guidance, as well as the ability to distinguish [between right and wrong]. Therefore, whoever among you witnesses this month shall fast therein; whoever is sick or on a journey will make up for the missing days at a later date. God wants to facilitate things for you and does not intend any hardship upon you, so you may fulfill the prescribed period and magnify God for having guided you, and for you to be appreciative.
(2:189) They ask you about the new moons: Say: “They are starting points to determine time for mankind, including the pilgrimage (Hajj). It is not righteousness for you to enter homes from their rear; on the contrary, righteous is the one who fears God and enters homes from their [front] door. Fear God, that you may succeed.
(2:194) The Sacred Month belongs with the sacred month: Transgression shall be met by an equivalent retaliation. Therefore, whoever commits a violation against you, [you are then allowed to] commit a violation against him in a similar manner as he transgressed against you. Fear God, and know that God is with the [God] fearing.
(2:196) You shall complete the Hajj and the ‘Umrah for the sake of God, but if you are prevented [from performing them], then sacrifice an animal that you can easily afford; and do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal has reached its destination. But whoever lacks the means shall fast three days during the Hajj, and seven when you return, which makes it ten entire [days]. This applies for someone whose family is not in the precincts of the Sacred Mosque. Fear God, and know that God is severe in retribution. (2:197) The Hajj shall be observed during the well known months. Therefore, anyone who is going to the Hajj during that time shall abstain from any intimate relationship, misconduct and quarrelling during the Hajj. And God knows full well any good that you do. And stock up on supplies, but, in reality, the most important thing that you need is righteousness. And fear Me, O you who possess intelligence!
Why is the month of Ramadan cited right in the middle of so many verses that deal with the Hajj and its rituals, as well as the four sacred months of Hajj? Very simply because it is the first sacred month of Hajj, which confirms what we witnessed in sura 9 and defines the four sacred month in Islam as the last four of the lunar year.
Ask any Sunni or Shia Muslim: “What is the most sacred month in Islam?”. They will unanimously respond that it is Ramadan, the month of fasting, “during which the Quran was revealed” (2:185). Why do they then claim that it is not part of the only four Sacred months decreed by God in Islam?! It is because of corrupted hadiths that contradict the Quran and disfigure Islam to the point of not even knowing the real sacred months, and not even knowing that the Hajj can in reality be performed during four full lunar months.
Hadiths and religious leaders restrict the Hajj to only five days (!), between the 8th and the 12th days of the month of Dhul Hijjah, which is the obvious reason why thousands of Muslims have died in deadly stampedes over the past century. It is likely that hundreds of billions of Muslims will perform the Hajj in the future, God willing, as the Quran says that true Islam is going to prevail in the world. Would it make sense for God Almighty, who obviously knew how numerous we would become, to have chosen only five days to reunite the human race in His Holy temple?!
The Quran provides Muslims more than plenty of time to perform the Hajj safely over four full months, that is to say one third of every single lunar year. God allows 24 times more time to perform the Hajj than the current 5 days!
4. The reason why “Pilgrimages” in 28:27 is a synonym of “lunar years”
To finish this section let us cite the verse which shows that Moses performed the Hajj to Mecca. We are going to see that it also suggests that the Hajj season ends with the four Sacred Months months of Hajj:
قال انى اريد ان انكحك احدى ابنتى هتين على ان تاجرنى ثمنى حجج فان اتممت عشرا فمن عندك وما اريد ان اشق عليك ستجدنى ان شاء الله من الصلحين
(28:27) He (Reuel) said: “I wish to marry you (Moses) to one of my two daughters, in return of which you will work for me for eight pilgrimages; it will then be up to you if you complete ten; I do not wish to make it difficult for you. You will find me, God willing, righteous”.
The pilgrimage that is referred to in the verse is obviously the Hajj to Mecca, as the descendants of Abraham (Arabs and Jews) used to follow his religion (and therefore the Hajj he instituted by God's grace), and as it is the only Hajj authorized in the Quran. As we see in the verse, people who lived in Arabia at the time of Moses used to count years in “pilgrimages” (حجج = plural of Hajj), that is to say in lunar years. The reason is pretty obvious: The pilgrimage season ends the lunar year, which allows people to count years in “pilgrimages” interchangeably with “lunar years”. This is why verse 28:27 implies in the general context of the Quran (especially referring to sura 9) that the sacred months of Hajj are the last four of the lunar year. “Eight pilgrimages” means that Moses agreed to work for his future father in law for at least eight full lunar years, and that he could stop working for him after the last day of Dhul Hijjah (the last day of the pilgrimage season and lunar year), 8 lunar years later. I suspect that the scene described in the above verse took place in Mecca, near the well of Beer Sheba (as it is called in Genesis), which is now called the well of Zam Zam, right next to the Ka’bah. It is very possible that Moses arrived there towards the end of the Hajj season, that is to say the end of the lunar year, which would explain why Reuel could ask Moses to complete 8 (full) pilgrimage years.
5. Historical context of the revelation of sura 9
Given the crucial importance of sura 9 when it comes to understand the issue of the sacred months of hajj, and given the fact that it mentions the decisive battle of Hunayn, it is helpful to place it in its historical context to better understand it:
According to most Muslim historians, sura 48 was revealed right before sura 9. Sura 9 was one of the very last suras revealed and was only to be followed by suras 5 and 110. Our holy prophet Muhammad and the army of believers had performed the first post Hegira Hajj to Mecca the year before (8AH) sura 9 was revealed, as documented in sura 48 (Al Fath/Victory):
(48:24) He is the one who restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Mecca, after having granted you victory over them, and God witnessed everything you did. (48:25) They are the ones who disbelieved and kept you away from the Sacred Mosque [for you to perform the Hajj] and prevented the sacrificial offering from reaching its legitimate place. And if it were not for believing men and believing women whom you did not know, you would have crushed them, and they would have caused you some harm without you [even] knowing about this situation!: This is how God includes in his mercy whomever He wills. If they had been separated (in two distinct groups), we would certainly have inflicted upon those who disbelieved among them a painful retribution.
Mainstream historical records date the first pilgrimage mentioned in sura 48 as Dhū al-Qaʿda, 8AH, (629CE), which is the third sacred month of Hajj, and it is obvious in the sura that we are dealing with an actual Hajj that was performed (and not an ‘Umrah as Sunni historians claim because they are blinded by hadiths!) especially because verse 48:27:
لقد صدق الله رسوله الرءيا بالحق لتدخلن المسجد الحرام ان شاء الله ءامنين محلقين رءوسكم ومقصرين لا تخافون فعلم ما لم تعلموا فجعل من دون ذلك فتحا قريبا
(48:27) God has assuredly fulfilled (صدق = perfect tense = action is completed) his messenger’s truthful vision: “You will indeed enter the Sacred Mosque safely, God willing, having shaved your heads, or shortened [your hair], and without experiencing any fear.” For He knew what you did not know, and, in addition, laid the groundwork for an imminent victory.
God therefore did fulfill in sura 48 the messenger’s truthful vision and promise that the prophet had been foretold, that is to say that the believers would conquer Mecca and perform the Hajj: Muhammad and the believers entered the sacred Masjid having shaved their heads or shortened their hair, that is to say right after having accomplished the sacrifice (2:196, 22:27-29). The first pilgrimage and initial conquest of Mecca was not a complete victory though, since sura 48 only mentions a “imminent victory” (فتحا قريبا) in 48:27, because the polytheists had not been dislodged from Mecca in order to avoid a blood bath that would have caused existing believers who lived in Mecca, and that the prophet had no knowledge of, to be killed in the process of battle who would have been a final victory (48:25). Following the first Hajj and conquest of Mecca, sura 9 was revealed on the first day of Ramadan 9AH, that is to say on the day of the greater pilgrimage (9:3), shortly after the battle of Hunayn (9:25) which was a decisive victory against the polytheists (despite the fact that some of the believers had disobeyed God and his messenger by fleeing the battlefield at one point as described in 9:25). Following the battle, God issued a four month truce with the polytheists for the duration of the four sacred months of Hajj, announcing them as a punishment that they would be forbidden to come back to the Sacred Masjid in the future (9:28), unless they embraced Islam.
According to historical records, sura 9 is Medinan because the prophet did not perform the Hajj that year, Abu Bakr having been named by him as the Emir of the Hajj.
The prophet performed the pilgrimage the following year (631CE/10AH) and sura 5 was revealed on that occasion and was the next to last sura to be revealed according to most historians (the last one being sura 110 - surat Al Nasr - a very short sura of only 3 verses). Verse 5:3 states: “Today, I have completed your religion…”, because the final Muslim rituals and laws are provided in the sura.
(2:197) The Hajj shall be observed during the well known months…
(9:36) Indeed, the number of months decreed by God is twelve months, in accordance with the book of God [since] the day He created the heavens and the earth; among them, four are sacred…
(2:217) They ask you about fighting during the [four] sacred months. Proclaim: “Fighting therein is a great [sin]; repelling from the path of God, disbelieving in Him and in the Sacred Mosque, and expelling its people from it is [even] worse in the sight of God;…
(9:2) Therefore, roam through the land [freely] for four months, and know that you cannot escape from GOD, and that GOD humiliates the disbelievers. (9:3) And [this is] a proclamation from God and his messenger to the people, on the day of the greater pilgrimage (Yawma-lhajji al akbar), that God is no longer bound with the idol worshipers,… (9:5) So once the [four consecutive] sacred months [of hajj] are over, …
(9:28) O you who believe, the idol worshipers are impure, so do not let them approach the sacred Mosque after their [final] lunar year herein witnessed;…
- The above verses are self explanatory when it comes to the fact that the hajj can be performed during the 4 sacred months of hajj, which are the last four of the lunar year, that is to say Ramadan, Shawwal, Dhul-Qi’dah and Dhul-Hijjah.
- The expression “Yawma-lhajji al akbar” (the day of the greater pilgrimage) has been completely misunderstood for over 1000 years because of the corruption of hadiths, and simply means the first day that opens the hajj season, which is the first day of Ramadan.
- The reason why the month of Ramadan is mentioned in the middle of verses describing the hajj in sura 2 (2:158-197) is simply due to the fact that it is one of the sacred months of Hajj.
- The word “pilgrimages” in 28:27 is synonym of “lunar years” because the sacred months of Hajj are the last four of the lunar year, which allows to use “pilgrimages” and “lunar years” interchangeably to translate the verse, as witnessed in most Sunni translations which overwhelmingly choose to translate the word into “lunar years” or “years”.